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[ 1800 AD - 1900 AD ]

Irish parliament passes Act of Union, formally proclaimed on January 1, 1801; Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland created with a single parliament. 

Barrister Daniel O'Connell established the Catholic Association to press for full emancipation for Catholics and rapidly converted it into a political mass-movement.

O'Connell's success forced parliament to pass the Catholic Emancipation Act, removing virtually all disabilities against Catholics. 

Nationalist Young Ireland Movement founded; attempted insurrection in 1848 failed but the movement influenced later generations of nationalists. 

Successive failures of the staple potato crop led to famine; by 1851 starvation, disease, and emigration had reduced the population by a quarter.

Foundation of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, or Fenians, a revolutionary movement that attempted a failed uprising in 1867.

Disestablishment of (Anglican) Church of Ireland.

Nationalist Charles Stewart Parnell elected to British parliament, where he pursued a policy of obstructionism with other Irish Home Rule MPs to draw attention to the demand for a separate Irish parliament.

Parnell becomes leader of Irish Home Rule movement, combining it with demands for land reform. He subsequently converted British Prime Minister William Gladstone to the cause of Home Rule. First boycotts by Irish tenants against English absentee landlords.

Coercion Act passed giving Lord Lieutenant of Ireland power to arrest anyone merely on suspicion of treason or intimidation.

Assassination in Phoenix Park, Dublin, of Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish and Thomas Burke, respectively Britain's Chief Secretary and Under-secretary for Ireland, by militant nationalists in a protest against the Coercion Act. The subsequent Crimes Act made the provisions of the Coercion Act even more stringent. 

Irish Unionist Party founded to fight against Home Rule. 

Defeat of first Home Rule Bill presented by Gladstone's Liberal government with support of the Irish Party. 

Parnell forced to retire from leadership of nationalists, after he was cited as corespondent in a divorce case. Nationalist movement factionalises.

Second Home Rule Bill defeated. Death of Parnell.

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