Irish parliament passes Act of Union, formally proclaimed on January
1, 1801; Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland created with a single
Barrister Daniel O'Connell established the Catholic Association
to press for full emancipation for Catholics and rapidly converted
it into a political mass-movement.
O'Connell's success forced parliament to pass the Catholic Emancipation
Act, removing virtually all disabilities against Catholics.
Nationalist Young Ireland Movement founded; attempted insurrection
in 1848 failed but the movement influenced later generations of
Successive failures of the staple potato crop led to famine; by
1851 starvation, disease, and emigration had reduced the population
by a quarter.
Foundation of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, or Fenians, a revolutionary
movement that attempted a failed uprising in 1867.
Disestablishment of (Anglican) Church of Ireland.
Nationalist Charles Stewart Parnell elected to British parliament,
where he pursued a policy of obstructionism with other Irish Home
Rule MPs to draw attention to the demand for a separate Irish parliament.
Parnell becomes leader of Irish Home Rule movement, combining it
with demands for land reform. He subsequently converted British
Prime Minister William Gladstone to the cause of Home Rule. First
boycotts by Irish tenants against English absentee landlords.
Coercion Act passed giving Lord Lieutenant of Ireland power to arrest
anyone merely on suspicion of treason or intimidation.
Assassination in Phoenix Park, Dublin, of Lord Frederick Charles
Cavendish and Thomas Burke, respectively Britain's Chief Secretary
and Under-secretary for Ireland, by militant nationalists in a protest
against the Coercion Act. The subsequent Crimes Act made the provisions
of the Coercion Act even more stringent.
Irish Unionist Party founded to fight against Home Rule.
Defeat of first Home Rule Bill presented by Gladstone's Liberal
government with support of the Irish Party.
Parnell forced to retire from leadership of nationalists, after
he was cited as corespondent in a divorce case. Nationalist movement
Second Home Rule Bill defeated. Death of Parnell.